Monday, May 17, 2010
This model has been used by many since 1965, so much so that it seems to be more common sense than a theory. I think it is a good model to follow. It addresses the process needed to get tasks done in a group. In groups, if one were to follow this, I believe that the group as a whole would benefit. If used properly, the model can help prevent conflict and confusion on roles and everything as a whole.
Sunday, May 9, 2010
Stress and methods to reduce it varies from person to person. It is important that people research their personal experience to understand the causes and activities that aid in clearing their mind. An effective manager ensures the efficiency of their department while also setting realistic deadlines to keep stress to a minimum. Stress at the appropriate level can be healthy and encourage hard work.
A functional structure groups people based on the function they perform and links them with a supervisor who specifically understands their function. A divisional structure groups together activities which work together to complete the product. This allows them to focus on their specific task and share ideas to improve the product. The matrix structure is intended to create a stronger horizontal alignment and is effective when the organization needs to focus on a particular goal.
They recommend dedicating a certain amount of time each week without a cell phone which could become a distraction. It is not effective if the manager is distracted during these walks. The next suggestion is to use active listening and to discuss casual topics not always related to business. Showing interest and positively responding to feedback builds stronger working relationships and develops trust amongst the organization.
In my opinion, “Management by Walking Around” is vital to being a successful manager. The atmosphere it encourages is an appropriate balance between levels and promotes a flow of communication which is constructive for the organization.
This section is a reminder that we must evaluate the circumstances and pick our conflict wisely. By approaching conflict with the correct attitude, it is possible to improve conditions are keep the business in line with their objectives. Dysfunctional conflict can sometimes appear beneficial at the moment, but can hold unintended consequences.
Lately we have seen several examples of managers who lack humility. Egos get out of control and CEOs take pride in their personal successes. Without their team backing them, their success would not have been possible and it is important that they acknowledge this. The competition capitalism creates presents luck as a factor in reaching success.
This example indicates the impact of management on the organization. Had the top executives respected the decisions of management, Home Depot would have been able to provide a better experience for their customers.
Friday, May 7, 2010
Identify the purpose of your decision. What is exactly the problem to be solved? Why it should be solved?
Gather information. What factors does the problem involve?
Identify the principles to judge the alternatives. What standards and judgement criteria should the solution meet?
Brainstorm and list different possible choices. Generate ideas for possible solutions. See more on extending your options for your decisions on my brainstorming tips page.
Evaluate each choice in terms of its consequences. Use your standards and judgement criteria to determine the cons and pros of each alternative.
Determine the best alternative. This is much easier after you go through the above preparation steps.
Put the decision into action. Transform your decision into specific plan of action steps. Execute your plan.
Evaluate the outcome of your decision and action steps. What lessons can be learnt? This is an important step for further development of your decision making skills and judgement.
Amble, Brian. Violence at work has reached epidemic levels. 15 Jun 2006. 7 5 2010
Kreitner, Robert. Organizational Behavior. 9th ed. Vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2010.
"Handling conflict in a diverse work environment; find the right place and time to air your differences". Black Enterprise. FindArticles.com. 07 May, 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1365/is_9_36/ai_n26815075/
Thursday, May 6, 2010
Sunday, May 2, 2010
But enough of this. It's been a great semester... academically, that is. I'm not one for meeting people and making lots of friends. With the summer comes new routines and responsibilities. I'm going to be working more, spending more time hiking (one of my favorite outdoor activities) and spending some time in Santa Cruz with friends. Yes, it's going to be a glorious summer, but before I can start thinking about summer, I want to talk a little about change, because it's all around us. Make sure you're listening to that Fat Jon track as you read this post. It'll help.
I know I'm a lot older than most of my classmates. I'm 24. Yeah, I'm an old-timer. I was born in the 80's, and I'm gearing up to graduate after next semester. We're all going to graduate, and we're all going to start careers. Some of us are going to get married and start families. Some will go on to be titans of industry. Hell, we may have a couple future congressmen in our midst. The point is that change comes at you fast. But the same can also be said for business. It's changing, and it's because of us, and we don't even realize it.
20 years ago, nobody had computers in their home. 15 years ago, the Internet was just sowing the seeds for growth. 10 years ago, cell phones were much less common. A lot has changed in our lifetimes. We are buying and consuming products at a rate unseen in history, and the products we are craving are so new and so unprecedented, that the entire business paradigm has shifted. In ten years, cell phones went from black and white screens, no SMS messaging, and a high price tag to tiny touch-screen devices that cost a couple hundred dollars. The average cell phone is exponentially faster than the ENIAC computer used in the 40's, at the time the most advanced computer on earth.
Why is this important? Because we are the first generation to ever grow up and reach maturity in an environment like this. 50 years ago, everything we take for granted today was science fiction. The Internet has changed the game. Forever.
And that fact, that we grew up in this world- the world of today- makes us valuable. We have a perspective, a worldview, that is so far beyond our counterparts born a mere 20 years before us, that business has no choice but to change to meet us at the gate. There is a lot of change going on in business. It's not happening because people want it to, but because people are beginning to realize that it's necessary. People are demanding more financial disclosure, codes of ethics are becoming more important to the consumer, and employees (especially those in our generation) are beginning to feel that they wield more power in the workplace than ever before. People are beginning to demand more of businesses, and the current economic downturn has brought ethics and organizational behavior to the forefront of consumers' minds. This is truly an exciting time. For us. The businesses are pissed.
Chapter 18 of our book has a section that touches up on this exact point: resistance to change. Companies don't want to change, just like people usually don't like to change. I used to have a problem with drinking and smoking too much weed. I didn't like the idea of changing those behaviors because I enjoyed them, and nobody wants to stop doing something they enjoy. But I ultimately decided that those behaviors won't serve me when I start a career and so I stopped smoking pot and I drink a couple nights a week these days (as opposed to getting hammered every single day). The point is, there is always a modicum of resistance to any kind of change, because it takes us out of our normal rhythm, and superimposes a different kind of routine on top of one we were already familiar and comfortable with.
The book has a whole section of chapter 18 about resistance to change, and all the points made by the book are legitimate and understandable, but there are three that I think are the most important things that contribute to a person's (or organization's) resistance to change. These three things are an individual's predisposition toward change, surprise and fear of the unknown, and disruption of cultural traditions or group relationships.
First off, people don't like change. It's traumatic, requires extra effort, and takes people out of the familiar comfort zone to which they have become accustomed. It comes down to where you, as a person, learned how to handle change. During your formative years, if change was often forced upon you without explanation, chances are that you don't trust change, and that you'd rather feel secure with the familiar. This describes me quite accurately. Many of the changes that I endured as a child were forced on me (not without good reason, mind you). As a result, I have a hard time adjusting to new environments, people, or routines. It's very difficult for me to open up in situations I find unfamiliar. This is a difficult problem for me, but I'm trying to work on it.
This pretty much goes hand in hand with surprise and fear of the unknown. I hate things I don't understand or know intimately. I pride myself on my logical mind and inquisitive nature, but nobody can know everything. Nevertheless, when I can see a change coming on the horizon, and I don't know how it will affect me, I tend to get kind of riled up. Businesses are resisting change for the same reason: they don't know what lies on the other side. Humanity as a whole is scared of things we are incapable of quantifying and measuring. We fear death, for instance, because we have no idea what it feels like. Unlike most changes though, death is inevitable. Nobody wants to die, but everybody gets to. Other changes, on the other hand, are sort of discretionary. Change comes to an organization largely by necessity or a strong feeling that the change will benefit the organization as a whole. those working IN the organization, however, may be scared because they don't understand it.
Lastly, disruption of cultural traditions or group relationships is another thing that people largely want to avoid. If you went to work for a company largely because you heard that the culture was really great, and then you got used to that culture, and then they changed it, you'd be upset. Obviously, this falls into the realm of change killing what's familiar. If you're working with a great team in your office, and then all of a sudden, management reassigns half of you and brings in new people, that could be traumatic and frustrating. At all levels of an organization, people make friends and get accustomed to the overall culture of their position, and when those things change, they will fight tooth and nail to defend it (sometimes).
Change is in the air as we speak. We are transitioning from the semester proper into finals week, which is already difficult enough for many people. We are also moving from the school year to the summer. This is a time of mixed feelings for some. They go home and see all their home-town friends, but they're leaving behind the great ones they met at school. Schoolwork is replaced by internships and working a crappy retail job for enough cash for summer and the coming year.
Change is inevitable. It will happen many times throughout our lives, and a lot of it may actually go unnoticed. If your employer goes from using 30 pound creme stock paper to 80 pound eggshell stock paper, you would probably only notice how much nicer the card stock feels, and it wouldn't affect your life very much; but, if your employer started replacing all the phones in the office with payphones, you'd notice. Oh yeah, you'd notice.
And that's it for the blogging for the semester. Ladies and gentlemen, good night and good luck.
Monday, April 26, 2010
Morris, Erica. "Organization Chart." PRWeek (U.S.); Apr2010, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p13-13, 1/2p. Business Source Complete
Kreitner, Robert. Organizational Behavior. 9th ed. Vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2010.
In an article called “Five Steps to Effectively Managing Organizational Change”, there are additional ways an organization must follow to find successful change. First they recommend creating “acute awareness of how things are now and how this state of affairs falls short of accomplishing stated goals and objectives. “ Secondly, managers must cherish understanding that something must be done to change the current situation they are in. Thirdly, urgency for change is crucial in order to be accomplished. The fourth step is to “there needs to be a well-thought-out program to ensure the actual adoption of the changes in the way things are done” and rewarding those who perform accordingly. The last step is continuing to solicit feedback on the new ways established and urge further improvements through the employees job tasks.
"Five Steps to Effectively Managing Organizational Change." EzineArticles Submission - Submit Your Best Quality Original Articles For Massive Exposure, Ezine Publishers Get 25 Free Article Reprints. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.
Unfreezing is that stage that focuses on the motivation to change attitudes and behaviors to it management standards. Management can begin doing this by disconfirming the usefulness or appropriateness or employees' behaviors and attitudes.
Changing is an organizational change of any proportion that is undertaking to improve the process, procedure, product, service, or outcome of interest to management. In this process you must provide employees with new information, behavioral models, processes and procedures, equipment, technology, or ways of getting a job done.
Refreezing is the stage where employees are being helped to integrate changed behavior or attitudes into their work life. It is important to give the employees a chance to use their changed ways and once they do offering positive reinforcement is a large contributing factor to Lewin's three stage Change Model's success.
The main focus is on improvement, growth and problem solving.
An organizational change is a difficult experience. As posted by a student in her blog, change can be a difficult thing to adapt to; especially when individuals are so used to the same routine. It takes time for someone to get used to a change in the way something is run or organized. It’s difficult and not always pleasing to adjust. It is hard to catch up with the new way of work. This can all prove very disconcerting and sometimes downright depressing. If an individual becomes anxious about the new changes and misses the old customs, it can be emotionally challenging as well.
An article which is titled "The Check, Connect, and Expect Program: A Targeted, Tier 2 Intervention in the Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Model" by Cheney, Douglas, speaks about the effects of a type of feedback loop for those going through an organizational change. This feedback is necessary when faced with changes and it helps in order to adapt to them. This correaltes with the model change because it helps to diagnose what to change and how to evaluate changes in order for success to take place.
Source: Cheney Douglas. "The Check, Connect, and Expect Program: A Targeted, Tier 2 Intervention in the Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Model"
Because shareholders essentially own a small stake of the company, it is important to recognize their opinions. The price of their stock is dependent on upper managements ability to perform and if they are unimpressed, upper management would receive a less significant bonus.
It is my opinion that executive compensation is way out of control. In this recent recession we witnessed executives receive bonuses for "hard work" even though they ran the company into the ground. By giving shareholders a voice in compensation practices, I believe it will encourage management to earn their bonus rather than wait for them.
Sunday, April 25, 2010
In the article, "The Relationship Between Charismatic Leadership, Work Engagement, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors," Babcock, et. al. study the relationship between charismatic leadership and employee perceptions. Their results suggested that there is a significant and positive relation between charismatic leadership and work engagement.
Charismatic, positive leaders can help pave the way for change by easing their employees into the idea. Great leaders can build trust within the workplace, thus possibly removing the antichange attitudes that may once have existed.
Source: Babcock-Roberson, Meredith Elaine, and Oriel J. Strickland. "The Relationship Between Charismatic Leadership, Work Engagement, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors." Journal of Psychology 144.3 (2010): 313-326. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.
In the article, "Initial Attraction to Organizations: The influence of trait inferences," Slaughter et. al. study how organization personality perceptions are associated with an organization's characteristics. Research shows that the organization personality perceptions: Boy Scout, Innovativeness, Dominance, Thrift, and Style may determine an individual's attraction to firms that display the traits they are looking for. Furthermore, organizations can highlight these traits for future recruitment in the workplace.
Establishing an organizational mission statement or purpose separates the organization from others. Though all share a general structure, it is up to the organization to build upon that foundation to create something great.
Source: Slaughter, Jerel E., and Gary J. Greguras. "Initial Attraction to Organizations: The influence of trait inferences." International Journal of Selection & Assessment 17.1 (2009): 1-18. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.
The article, “Power and Trust in Global Virtual Teams,” by Panteli and Tucker explore the power balances and shifts within groups that internally ranged from high-trusting to low-trusting. Results showed that high-trusting teams shared the following: the members had similar goals in mind, the leaders prioritized the team’s success as their primary role, and the power did not disappear among members, but rather shifted throughout as the job progressed (Panteli and Tucker 2).
Trust, is therefore, necessary for organizational leaders, managers, and team members to be able to create, hone, and maintain in order to be successful and efficient within the workplace. Although it may be easily destroyed, trust is a vital component in how an organization can prosper.
Source: Panteli, Niki, and Robert Tucker. "Power and Trust in Global Virtual Teams." Communications of the ACM 52.12 (2009): 113-115. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 25 Apr. 2010.
- The chairman of DUPONT was very reactive toward the bad economic situation: he asked the managers to participate to a new way of management, due to the current crisis. Thus, the managers are aware of the company’s situation and of its will to face it.
- The company was not afraid of cost cutting, because it realized that it was for its own good.
- The immediate reactivity in reducing the costs is another strength for this company: it enables the company to act in the good way as fast as possible. The strength lies in the fact that the managers are aware of the situation and do not want to be blind; they know what will help their company to survive the crisis.
- The deadline of two or three months shows that the leaders want fast actions.
- The involvement of Holliday in the change management is so good that is becomes ‘contagious’: all the employees usually behave as their manager, and such a manager is a good way of developing change.
(1) Providing as much information as possible
(2) Inform the employees about the reasons/ rationale for the change.
(3) Conduct meetings to address the employees’ questions
(4) Providing employees to discuss how the proposed change might affect them.
In a way this reminded me of the case study we were doing in class last week. These are the four tasks that Roberta should do to be able to appease her workers—after finding out, of course, more information about the changes.
This particular subject was more discussed more in an article I found. According to the article, these where what the manager should do when change is about to occur in the workplace.
“* First, take internal measures including, i) attaining a good understanding of the change situation, 2) ensuring optimal involvement and 3) openness to feedback, and 4) remaining honest to the entire workforce.
* second, focus on mutual issues by using i) fair and honest communication in order to 2) motivate all parties involved, 3) nurture a climate of trust, 4) ensure agreement on the change and the path toward realizing it, and 5) instate a solid plan toward implementation.
* Finally, focus on operational strategies that facilitate the change process, such as i) providing training to optimize implementation of the change; 2) maintaining a climate of creativity to respond effectively to unfore seen challenges; 3) ensure optimal performance, including possible attraction of external consultants; 4) determine the formulation and review of several options (scenario planning) to possibly follow; 5) keep an eye on the budget; 6) remain friendly but alert on those who exit the organization; 7) establish leverage points to motivate workers toward better performance; and 8) maintain flexibility when sudden alterations in plans need to be made.” (Marques)
Source: Marques, J.. "Making the Best of the Inevitable: Change. " Journal of Global Business Issues 2.2 (2008): 33-42. ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest. Web. 25 Apr. 2010.
Saturday, April 24, 2010
In the current highly fluid, characterized by numerous mergers, restructuring and innovation, the relationship of employees the company has changed. Since the 90s, the speech did more to consumers only limited to communication on products but has sought to convey an overall picture of the company. The reorientation of internal communication flows from this development.
Internal communication is a vehicle for mobilization, but the manager has been vital for the individual motivation of its staff, mainly because of its relationship with them daily
To successfully develop the involvement of employees through communication, we must first reflect on what creates motivation. An employee will be motivated if he knows why and to what he's working. We must therefore give meaning to what is requested by entering its contribution in a company project.
Western countries are marked by an individualistic culture, including United States, Australia and in Europe, England and France, among others. These countries have adopted several centuries of liberal ideas promoting individual initiative, and the success. These liberal ideas was supported by the Church, dominant in the West, which emphasizes the responsibility individual. The East, including China, Japan and India, is marked the collectivist culture, too, is rooted in history. For one found collective dominance of the teachings of Confucius and the major religions like Buddhism and Hinduism.
The individualistic culture allows people to raise outstanding resources so vast that they have no precedent in history. We found in their ranks, personalities who gave their name to illustrious institutions, John Davison Rockefeller, Matthew Vassar, Leland Stanford... Many brands have their origin directly to their founders: Henry Ford, J. Paul Getty, Richard W. Sears, Roebuck Alvah, Clarence
Birdseye, W. K. Kellogg, Philip Danforth Armour, W. R. Grace. Henry Ford is particularly interesting because it provides innovation, both technologically and socially. After Reading Emerson's essay entitled "Compensation", he doubled the salaries of workers, which allowed them to buy the Model T which he had by
also cut the price.
One result of American individualism is that the system of philanthropie United States is among the most innovative, the richest in ideas and the most exciting in the world. It gives meaning to the formulas: "Helping people help themselves" and "No a gift, but a boost ».
Such an organization enables individuals to know where he stands, what he has to do, to whom he is accountable but it is not without flaws. information are much more time to run and urgent decisions are taken at the last moment. more if the decision of the CEO or someone highly placed is not good, it will be applied.
The book discusses how stress can also be a positive factor, which I had never considered before.. Stress is the body's way of dealing with pressure and pushes people to pin point the worst cause of their stress and start seeking solutions for it. It helps them improve because change only comes when something forces it to occur.
"Organisational change can be a stressor, sometimes to an overwhelming extent, but it can also offer creative opportunities for dealing with the stress that accompanies it (McDermott 2002).
Workplace stress and personal stress are not mutually exclusive phenomena. Each has direct and indirect effects on the other, and, while ways to address stress in each environment differ, they can also overlap" (Hurley).
By recognizing this, people can start to deal with their stress through meditation, organizing their problems and choosing to address them. Just breathing deeply for a few moments has been found to have a calming effect on a person since more oxygen is taken into the body. This helps to clear a person's mind and make them mentally ready to take on whatever is next.
Hurley, Mary. "Managing stress in the workplace. (Cover story)." Nursing Management - UK 14.3 (2007): 16-18. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 24 Apr. 2010.
It's going to be short today, but nobody reads my posts, so I doubt anyone will even notice. The year is coming to a rapid conclusion, and we're just about ready to wrap up our fun-filled semester in this class. I'm kind of sad to see it go, to be perfectly honest. John is a good teacher who knows what he's talking about, and we've learned a lot about teamwork and organizational culture. The whole blogging system for doing homework (a system also utilized in his internet marketing class) was a really cool idea that made homework feel more communal with other classmates. In all, I had a good semester in this class. But enough of my nostalgic banter.
In doing the reading for this week, I came across something really important that feels like a great note to begin the fade to black. In chapter seventeen of the luminous tome, Organizational Behavior, by none other than the dynamic duo, Kreitner and Kinicki, there was something in chapter seventeen that really caught my eye. Of course, this was the Open System Perspective of Organizations.
An open system refers to an entity that constantly interacts with its environment in order to survive. It's not difficult to generalize with a topic like this. As human beings, for instance, we must interact with our environment in many ways, such as procuring food and going for long hikes on Mt. Tamalpais. But how does an organization adhere to the concept of an open system? In what ways does an organization such as a business lend itself to contextual environmental interaction? The answer is not quite as straightforward as you'd think, and this can be a very nuanced topic.
The book makes a good point when describing open systems. Every system in existence is partially closed and partially open, so the discussion about an open system is essentially taking a look at the nuanced parts of a system and coming to a conclusion about its openness. The book suggests looking at how great the role of the overall environment is in the functions of a system in order to make a determination.
But what does an open system look like?
If we go back to the 1950's and keep going backwards, business was not organized the way it is today. Businesses were mostly seen as a well-oiled machine that functioned off of a strict sense of discipline and had a tendency to be run like a military brigade. Fortunately for us in this day and age, most businesses are not run that way anymore. A different framework was needed to progress the organizational paradigm.
Essentially, there is a barrier between the organization and the outside environment as a whole. Inside this barrier are subsystems pertaining to each aspect of organizational functionality: goals and values, the technical aspects, psychosocial aspects, structural considerations, and the managerial processes of the company. In an open system, the barrier that protects these internal components of the organization needs to be a permeable membrane, capable of allowing inputs (money, materials, human capital, and information) into the organization freely. Equally important is the ability of the membrane to allow outputs (products, services, organizational growth, social benefits) to escape in order to fulfill their purpose, with the feedback from the outputs turning around and influencing the supply of necessary imports, starting the cycle over again.
In essence, an open organization is one that operates in the most logical fashion, with overlapping internal components, and a perforated outer shell that allows the free flow of necessary environmental components through the company. In this way, the company can move faster and make more money, due to the very nature of its design. The human body operates in a similar fashion. We have a semi-permeable membrane (our skin), which lets key environmental nutrients into our bodies (vitamins from the sun, moisture from the air). We also eat food, a necessary input, in order to function internally, and then export our outputs, which expend energy. So a company that takes a little lesson from biological processes can function at a much higher level than one that simply views its design as some kind of soulless cubicle farm with a rigid sense of 1950's-era discipline.
Friday, April 23, 2010
In a book exert from the online website, ChangingMinds.Org, it gave an overview of Lewin’s Change Model, however, it touched on some important points not mentioned in our book. One point Straker brings up is that people have a natural tendency to find context that they feel a sense of safety and control and that talking to people about the future doesn’t help to ‘unfreeze’ them. To ‘unfreeze,’ a push strategy should be implemented to initiate the change, and a pull strategy to motivate people to continue making the change. Some people are ‘change ready’ while others take longer to accept the need for change. In the transition or changing stage, time is essential because change is often a journey rather than a single step. A good leader should help to coach their followers so that everyone can follow through with the change. Initiating change can also be hard because it’s the 1st step. To move past this, a slow initiation of change or preparation will help to ease the uncertainty. Another problem is that often people purposely stay in the transitioning stage rather than reaching the desired change. People become comfortable with the temporary situation where they’re not held accountable for their actions, and replace real action with just talking about change. Instead of completely unfreezing, Straker writes that it’s ideal to be in an inbetween stage where freezing isn’t fully reached so that the next unfreezing will be easier. However, the problem with that is that people experience ‘change shock,’ where they perform ineffectively because they anticipate a new change. This website is helpful in realizing other points about the Lewin’s Change Model.
Straker, David. Lewin's Freeze Phase. 23 April 2010 (http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/lewin_change/lewin_change.htm).
Recently, more people have become more stressed because of the recession. The father of the concept of stress, Hans Selye, stated that both positive and negative events can trigger an identical stress response that can be beneficial or harmful. He defined positive stress as eustress. He emphasizes that efforts need to be directed at managing stress, not at somehow escaping it altogether.
The article "Define Stress" re emphasizes this point of managing stress. It states that "Managing stress and symptoms of stress is important because stress and health are related to each other." That is why it is important to know what stress is and what your personal stressors are and how you can you manage them, which may be by seeking professional help.
"Define Stress." Manage Stress. 23 April 2010. http://www.aboutstressmanagement.com/stressrelief/stress-management/define-stress/define-stress.htm
Thursday, April 22, 2010
I directly related to this in how John asked his students what they thought of the syllabus, and what changes they would make. In doing this, the students felt like they were valued and respected. No matter how small your roll is, it feels good to be a part of something and to contribute. It also makes the students accountable for their actions when they mess up. Just like it’s easy for you to complain about a president which you didn’t vote for, it’s easy for students to hate a syllabus which was thrown at them. However, if the students write the syllabus, there is not much they can complain about.
I did some additional research on shareholder involvement and found that it is now the norm to involve the shareholders to a certain extend. The biggest factor however, is how large the share. Someone who owns .002% of Nike doesn’t have as much say in the direction of the company as Michael Jordan or Tiger Woods. However, there are meeting, conferences and polls that any shareholder can participate in in many companies.
Wednesday, April 21, 2010
The book describes decision making as, “part science and part art.” The science of decision making is the more important factor because it addresses the expected result whereas art is related to intuition and a person’s ethical perspective of the situation. However, it is important to include both aspects to the decision making process. By including both science and art to the equation, one can increase the likeliness of meeting their goal without compromising their integrity.
It seems that in today’s business world, many people focus on the science of decision making and forget about the art. Repeatedly we are reminded of situations in which ethics were ignored because they interfered with accomplishing the goal. Such high pressure to succeed in today’s world makes it more convenient to ignore morals, so it takes a stronger individual to avoid this temptation.
The affective component is feelings or emotions that a person will have in regards to a situation or object. This component can be expressed as positive, negative, or neutral if the situation does not influence any emotion. This is an important concept because nearly every situation evokes emotion to some degree.
The cognitive component refers to pre-existing beliefs a person holds regarding a situation. This component influences everybody and is a result of past experiences which have influenced an opinion on the subject. In society, we commonly witness the cognitive component as we see people conform into political and religious groups. This is an obstacle when working in teams because it is hard for people to look past their own beliefs, therefore making it more difficult to come to a consensus.
The behavioral component represents the actions that one will take in a given situation. In many ways, this component has the greatest influence on team moral because it is the most noticeable. Unlike the affective and cognitive components which are related to emotion, this component is visible and harder to disguise.
By breaking ones attitude down into these components, it becomes easier to analyze our impact on others. By acknowledging our positive features and working to change are negative ones, we can become more supportive and efficient when working in teams.
The reason this section caught my attention is because I have been doing a lot of research of what it takes to be an entrepreneur. What I have found is people have a more successful career working on something they are passionate about than when they are rewarded by extrinsic factors such as a large pay check. While trying to figure out my career path, I have made this concept the basis of how I choose.
Mentioned in the chapter is that employees are motivated more by appreciating and feeling apart of the process than by monetary rewards. This concept is important for managers to consider when hiring and supports the fact that they should not compromise. When hiring, it is important to make sure that the person’s core values and interests line up with the job that they are applying for.
The three threats to group effectiveness mentioned in this section are the Asch effect, groupthink, and social loafing. Out of these, I found the Asch effect to be most interesting. The Asch effect deals with perspective and is named after a psychologist who studied group dynamics. He conducted an experiment which people would have to match the length of one line with one of three others on a separate card. Because there was only one correct choice, the results should have been unanimous, but they weren’t. This is because Dr. Asch arranged to have one of the participants offer up incorrect information, and under pressure, other people followed.
I have witnessed this effect occur several times when working in a group, yet didn’t understand the context until now. What may appear to be consensus might actually be the Asch effect in disguise.